نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مشاوره دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

یکی از مشکلات پژوهشگران دانشجو دشواری یافتن نمونه، هماهنگ کردن مکان و زمان مناسب برای انجام پژوهش است. استفاده از شبکه‌های پیام‌رسان فوری و کامپیوتر به محققان این امکان را می‌دهد که به مراجعان بالقوه، دسترسی راحتتری پیدا کنند و از این طریق محدودیت‌های مکانی و زمانی را حذف می‌کند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی قابلیت‌ها و محدودیت‌های پژوهش در فضای مجازی است. روش این پژوهش کیفی و نمونه آن نه نفر از دانشجویانی است که کار پژوهش پایان نامه خود را با کمک فضای مجازی انجام داده‌اند. ابزار پژوهش مصاحبه نیمه ساختار‌یافته و تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها به روش تحلیل مضمون انجام شد. قابلیت های فضای مجازی برای کار پژوهشی شامل "دسترسی و راحتی"، "انعطاف‌پذیری"، "گمنامی"، "فرصت‌های درمان‌بخش"، "فرصت پشتیبانی و نظارت استاد" و "قابلیت‌های فراشناختی" می شود. همچنین محدودیت‌های پژوهش در فضای مجازی مربوط به "ثبت و مستند سازی"، "فقدان قدرت کنترل"، "فقدان نشانه‌های تماس حضوری"، "دغدغه‌های اخلاقی" و "کند بودن فرایند" است. بنابراین ویژگی نوشتاری بودن از یک طرف به دلیل ایجاد قابلیت‌های فراشناختی مزیتی عمده و از طرف دیگر به دلیل فقدان نشانه‌های فرازبانی چالشی جدی به حساب می‌آید. لذا بهترین اقدام، انجام پژوهش به شیوه‌ای ترکیبی است که هر دو مزیت را در‌بر‌گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Cyberspace: a Place for Qualitative Research in Helping Professions: Capabilities and Limitations

نویسنده [English]

  • Asieh Shariatmadar

Counseling Department, Faculty of Psychology & Educational Scientists, Allameh Tabataba'i University

چکیده [English]

Cyberspace, a Place for Research in Helping Professions: Capabilities and Limitations

Abstract
One problem for student researchers is the difficulty of finding a sample and coordinating the location and time for research. The use of instant messaging and computer networks enables researchers to find easier access for potential users, thereby eliminating spatial and temporal constraints. The purpose of this study is to investigate the capabilities and limitations of research in telegram setting. The method of this research is qualitative, and its sample, is nine students who have done their dissertation research in the telegram setting. The research tool was semi-structured interview and data analysis was done by the thematic analysis. Telegram capabilities for research work includ “accessibility and comfort”, “flexibility”, “anonymity”, “therapeutic opportunities”, “faculty support and supervision capabilities”, “metacognitive capabilities”, and the constraints for research in telegram setting are “documentation constraints”, “lack of control over the situations”, “lack of contact signs”, “ethical concerns”, and ”slowness of process”. Therefore, due to the creation of metacognitive capabilities, writing is a major advantage of interviewing in telegram. On the other hand, is a serious challenge due to the lack of meta-tagging symptoms, therefore the best thing to do is research in a hybrid way that includes both benefits.
Keyword: instant messaging, research, online, interview, qualitative, access

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "instant messaging"
  • "research"
  • "online"
  • "qualitative interview"
  • "accessibility"

 

ـ بطحایی، سیده زهرا (1390)، «سرقت علمی: تعریف، مصادیق و راهکارهای جلوگیری، پیش‌گیری و تشخیص»، فصلنامه کارآگاه. 2(16)6 ـ 18.

-           Abrams, K. M. , Wang, Z. , Song, Y. J. , & Galindo ـ Gonzalez, S. (2015). Data richness trade ـ offs between face ـ to ـ face, online audiovisual, and online text ـ only focus groups. Social Science computer review, 33(1), 80 ـ 96.

-           Ayling, R. , & Mewse, A. J. (2009). Evaluating Internet interviews with gay men. Qualitative Health Research, 19(4), 566 ـ 576.

-           Barratt, M. J. (2012). The efficacy of interviewing young drug users through online chat. Drug and Alcohol Review, 31(4), 566 ـ 572.

-           Benford, P. , & Standen, P. J. (2011). The use of email‐facilitated interviewing with higher functioning autistic people participating in a grounded theory study. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 14(5), 353 ـ 368.

-           Bowden, C. , & Galindo ـ Gonzalez, S. (2015). Interviewing when you’re not face ـ to ـ face: The use of email interviews in a phenomenological study. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10(12), 79 ـ 92.

-           Brondani, M. , MacEntee, M. , & O'Connor, D. (2011). Email as a data collection tool when interviewing older adults. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 10(3), 221 ـ 230.

-           Burns, E. (2010). Developing email interview practices in qualitative research. Sociological research online, 15(4), 1 ـ 12.

-           Chen, P. , & Hinton, S. M. (1999). Realtime interviewing using the world wide web. Sociological Research Online, 4(3), 1 ـ 19.

-           Cook, C. (2012). Email interviewing: generating data with a vulnerable population. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(6), 1330 ـ 1339.

-           Deakin, H. , & Wakefield, K. (2014). Skype interviewing: Reflections of two PhD researchers. Qualitative research, 14(5), 603 ـ 616.

-           Dimond, J. P. , Fiesler, C. , DiSalvo, B. , Pelc, J. , & Bruckman, A. S. (2012, October). Qualitative data collection technologies: a comparison of instant messaging, email, and phone. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM international conference on Supporting group work (pp. 277 ـ 280). ACM.

-           Fontes, T. O. , & O’Mahony, M. (2008). In ـ depth interviewing by Instant Messaging. Social Research Update, 53(2), 1 ـ 4.

-           Egan, J. , Chenoweth, L. , & Mcauliffe, D. (2006). Email ـ facilitated qualitative interviews with traumatic brain injury survivors: A new and accessible method. Brain Injury, 20(12), 1283 ـ 1894.

-           Etherington, K. (2003). Trauma, the body and transformation: Narrative Inquiery, London: Jesica Kingsley Publishers.

-           Graffigna, G. , & Bosio, A. C. (2006). The influence of setting on findings produced in qualitative health research: A comparison between face ـ to ـ face and online discussion groups about HIV/AIDS. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(3), 55 ـ 76.

-           James, N. (2016). Using email interviews in qualitative educational research: Creating space to think and time to talk. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 29(2), 150 ـ 163.

-           Jowett, A. , Peel, E. , & Shaw, R. (2011). Online interviewing in psychology: Reflections on the process. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 8(4), 354 ـ 369.

-           Meho, L. I. (2006). E‐mail interviewing in qualitative research: A methodological discussion. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 57(10), 1284 ـ 1295.

-           Mukherjee, T. T. (2012). Online Research Methodology: Using the Internet and the Web for Research and Publication. Bhatter College Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2. 55 ـ 65. Available online at: http://bcjms. bhattercollege. ac. in, published by Bhatter College, Dantan, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. www. bhattercollege. ac. in. © Bhatter College, Dantan

-           Nicholas, D. B. , Lach, L. , King, G. , Scott, M. , Boydell, K. , Sawatzky, B. J. ,... & Young, N. L. (2010). Contrasting internet and face ـ to ـ face focus groups for children with chronic health conditions: Outcomes and participant experiences. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 9(1), 105 ـ 121.

-           Opdenakker, R. (2006, September). Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative research. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 7, No. 4).

-           Oseni, K. , Dingley, K. , & Hart, P. (2017). Instant messaging and social networks: the advantages in online research methodology. In The 6th International Conference of Educational and Information Technology Cambridge, UK. Google Scholar.

-           Rau, P. P. (Ed. ). (2011). Internationalization, Design and Global Development: 4th International Conference, IDGD 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9 ـ 14, 2011, Proceedings (Vol. 6775). Springer Science & Business Media.

-           Synnot, A. , Hill, S. , Summers, M. , & Taylor, M. (2014). Comparing face ـ to ـ face and online qualitative research with people with multiple sclerosis. Qualitative health research, 24(3), 431 ـ 438.

-           Voida, A. , Mynatt, E. D. , Erickson, T. , & Kellogg, W. A. (2004, April). Interviewing over instant messaging. In CHI'04 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems(pp. 1344 ـ 1347). ACM.

-           Watson, M. , Peacock, S. , & Jones, D. (2006). The analysis of interaction in online focus groups. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 13(12), 551 ـ 557.

-           Williams, S. (2009). Understanding Anorexia Nervosa: an online phenomenological approach (Doctoral dissertation, Queen Margaret University).

-           Zhang, Z. (2010). Using online action research to improve a teacher education course. Ontario Action Researcher, 11(1), 1 ـ 8. Available on http://oar. nipissingu. ca/PDFS/V1112. pdf.