فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 پژوهشگر، مؤسسه دین و اقتصاد

چکیده

سیاست‌ های حافظه با به کارگیری از حافظه فرهنگی بدست می‌آیند و در جهت یادآوری به کار گرفته می شوند. سمبل‌ها، یادبودها، جشن‌ها، نقاشی‌های دیواری، پوسترها و عزاداری‌ها و نوشته‌ها را حافظه فرهنگی می‌نامند که به بازسازی حافظه‌ای کمک می‌کند. ابژه ها و فضاهای عمومی این پتانسیل را در خود دارند تا سیاست‌های حافظه را بازسازی کنند و در نتیجه برای یادآوری های جمعی به کار بسته می شوند؛ لیک، در این فرآیند روایت بخش هایی از گذشته تاریخی حذف می شود. این‌گونه دستکاری در یادآوری گذشته منجر به فراموشی جمعی می شود.
در زمان حاکمیت پهلوی و همچنین دولت های پسا انقلابی در ایران، اصرار جهت یادآوری گزینشی از تاریخ به آفرینش وسواس‌های حافظه‌ای انجامیده است. یادآوری جمعی حاکی از فراموشی جمعی نیز هست. فراموشی استقرار یافته در روایت از گذشته تاریخی میان معنی و هویت سازی شکاف ایجاد می کند و کنشگران اجتماعی را در مواجهه با دولت به چالش می‌کشد. این امر توانایی ایشان را در روایت از خود ملی زائل و جامعه را مبتلا به ترومای فرهنگی می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Politics of Memory, Cultural Memory and Cultural trauma in Modern Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeed zokaei 1
  • Masiha Vala 2

1 Allameh tabatabaei

2 researcher, Institute Religion and Economic Studies

چکیده [English]

Memory politics is achieved through the application of cultural memory and is used for remembering. Symbols, Memorials, celebration, murals, posters, mourning rituals and scripts are called cultural memory and contribute into the reconstruction of the memory. Objects and public spaces have inherent potentials to represent cultural politics and thus can lend themselves into collective remembering; in this process though, some part of the historical past are left out in the discourse. Manipulated remembering includes forgetting.
During the Pahlavi era, as well as Iranian post revolutionary governments, there was an instance on selective remembrance of the history which in return has caused memory obsessions. The forgetfulness that is situated in the narrative of the historical past creates a divide between meaning and identity making and challenges the face-off between social actors and governments. This matter renders them incapable of narrating their national selves and inflicts a cultural trauma on the society.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Politics of memory
  • Cultural memory
  • Remembering
  • forgetting
  • Cultural trauma
  •  

    • دسترسی آنلاین http://old.aviny.com/ مرتضی آوینی، آینه جادو، سال انتشار 1378
    •  روح آلله خمینی، صحیفه نور، جلد20، سال انتشار 1381صفحه 236
    •  رهبرانقلاب: شهید آوینی میگفت، این جوانهای ما به راههای آسمان آشناترند تا به راههای زمین/حضور رهبرانقلاب در مراسم تشییع شهید آوینی دسترسی آنلاین https://khabarban.com/17988919/

     

    • Abrahamian, E. (2008) A history of modern Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Aghaie, S-K. (2004) The martyrs of karbala: Shi’I symbols and rituals in modern Iran. USA: University of Washington Press.
    • Alexander JC & Eyerman, R &, Giesen B, Smelser N.J& Sztompka P, (2005) Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity. United States of America: University of California Press
    • Assmann, A. (2016) Shadows of trauma: memory and the politics of postwar identity, Translated by Sarah Clift, Translation edition (1 Dec. 2015). New York: Fordham University Press.
    • Assmann J &Czaplicka J, Collective Memory and Cultural Identity, New German Critique, No. 65, Cultural History/Cultural Studies (Spring - Summer, 1995), pp.125-133.
    • Benjamin, W. (1968) Illuminations: Essays and Reflections, trans. H. Zohn, ed.H. Arendt. New York: Schcken Books.
    • Connerton, P. (1989) How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University
    • Press.
    • Confino, A. (1997) Collective memory and cultural history: problems of method. The American Historical Review, (Vol. 102, No. 5), pp. 1386-1403.
    • Dahbashi, H. (2007) Iran: a people interrupted. United States of America: The New Press.
    • Erll, A (2008), The invention of tradition in Cultural Memory Studies. An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, Edition: Media and Cultural Memory 8, Publisher: W. de Gruyter, Editors: A. Erll, A. Nünning, pp.85-96
    • Eyerman, R. (2008) Cultural trauma: slavory and the formation of African American Identity in Alexandr J. C. The Assissassination of Theo Van Gogh: From social Drama to cultural trauma, and co. United States: Duke University.
    • Fromanger, M. (2013) Variations in martyr’s representations in south Tehran’s private and public spaces. In P. Khosro Nejad(Ed.) Unberried memories: The politics of bodies of sacred defense martyrs in Iran. London: Routeldge.
    • Foucault M (2002) Archaeology of KnowledgeBy Translated by A.M. Sheridan Smith, London and new york routledge.
    • Foucault M. (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977و Pantheon Books, 1980
    • Ghanea-Hercock, N. & Hass, B. (2011) Seeking justice and an end to neglect: Iran's minorities today. Contributor: Minority Rights Group International.
    • Halbwachs, M. ([1926] 1992) On Collective Memory, Chicago: Chicago: University Press.
    • Hobsbawm, E. (1983) Introduction: Inventing traditions, in E. Hobsbawm and T. Ranger (eds) The Invention of Tradition, pp. 1–14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Hodgkin. K.& Radstone, S. (2003) Contested Pasts: the politics of memory London: Routledge
    • Heimo, A. & Peltonen, U-M. (2003) Memories and histories, pulic and Private: After the Finnish Civil War 42-57, In (Ed.) K, Hodgkin & Radstone, S. Contested Pasts: the politics of memory. London: Routledge.
    • Huyssen, A. (1995) Twilight Memories. London: Routledge.
    • Fromanger, M. (2013). Variations in martyr’s representations in south Tehran’s private and public spaces. In P. Khosro Nejad(Ed.) Unberried memories: The politics of bodies of sacred defense martyrs in Iran. London: Routeldge.
    • Irwin-Zarecka, I. (1994) Frames of Remembrance, New Brunswick: Transactions Book

     

    • Khavar, k. (2014) Martyrdom in Light of Arab Spring.In Dehghani, S &Horsch, S(Ed.) Martydom in the Modern Middle East. Berlin: Ergon Verlag Press.
    • KhosroNejad, P. (2013). Introduction: Unberied Memories. In P, Kosro Nejad Unberried Memories: The Politics of Bodies of Sacred Defense Martyrs. London: Routeldge.
    • Schwartz, B. (1982). The social context of commemoration: A study in collective memory Source: Social Forces, Vol. 61, No. 2 (Dec), pp. 374-402.
    • Smelser J Neil (2008) Psychological Trauma and Cultural Trauma in The Assissassination of Theo Van Gogh: From social Drama to cultural trauma, Alexandr J cC, and co. United States: Duke University.
    • Smith, D, A. (2009). Ethno-symbolism and nationalism: cultural approach. London: Taylor & Fransic Ltd, Routledge
    • Tombouka, M .(2013). A Foucaldian Approach to Narative in Doing Narrative research Andrews M and co. London: Sage publication.
    • Olick, JK. (1998) Introduction: Memory and the Nation: Continuities, Conflicts, and Transformations Social Science History, Vol. 22, No. 4, Special Issue: Memory and the Nation (Winter), pp. 377-387.
    • Nora, P. (ed.) (1996a) Realms of Memory, Vols 1–3, trans. A. Goldhammer. New York: Columbia University Press.
    • Ozouf, M. (1988) Festivals and the French Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    • Ricoeur, P. (1984) Time and Narrative translated by Kathleen Mcloughlin & David Pellauer. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    • Roediger H. L. & Wertsch J. V. (2008). Creating a new discipline of memory Studies, , Memory Studies Journal, January 1, 2008; pp. 9–22.
    • Pearson, R. (1999) Custer loses again: the contestation over Commodified public memory, in D. Ben-Amos and D. Weissberg (eds) Cultural Memory and the Construction of Identity, pp. 176–201. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.
    • Vejdani, F. (2014). The place of Islam in interwar Iranian nationalist historiography. In S.K. Aghaie & Marashi, A(Ed.) Rethinking Iranian nationalism and modernity.United States of America:University of Texas Press.
    • Weber, M. (1978) Selections in Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Zerubavel, E. (2003) Terra Cognita: The mental discovery of America, New Brunswick (U.S.S) and London (U.K): Transaction Publishers.