فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسنده

استاد نظریه و نقد ادبی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

) نقد فمینیستی در مطالعات فرهنگی از حمله با این ویژگی  منحصر  به فرد از سایر ﺷﻴﻮه ﻣﻲ ﻫﺎی ﻧﻘﺪ ادﺑﻲ ﻣﺪرن ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ  می ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﺪاﻳﺶ و رواج اﻳﻦ رﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ، ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻳﻚ ﺟﻨﺒﺶ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ اﺳﺖ کهِ ﺧﻮدآﮔﺎﻫﻲ زﻧﺎن ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮی حقوق مدنی آنها با مردان، نه فقط  ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ  ﮔﻴﺮی ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎی اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺮای ﻧﻴﻞ ﺑﻪ اﻫﺪاﻓﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮن ﺣﻖ رأی دادن و ﺑﺮﺧﻮرداری از دﺳﺘﻤﺰد ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ در ازای ﻛﺎر ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺮدان ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸﻲ درﺑﺎرة  ِ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ و اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﺎزوﻛﺎرﻫﺎی ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ زﻧﺎن در اﻳﻦ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﻣﻲ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻛﻤﻚ  ﻛ اﻧﺠﺎﻣﻴﺪ ﻨﺪ .ازاﻳﻦ رو  ادﺑﻴﺎت ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺔ ﻳﻜﻲ از ارﻛﺎن نابرابر اجتماعی به منزله ارکان اﻧﻜﺎرﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ، از اﺑﺘﺪا ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎص ﻓﻤﻴﻨﻴﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮده اﺳﺖ . ﮔﺴﺘﺮش ﺣﻮزة ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت زﻧﺎن در دﻫﻪ   1970ﻫﺎی ﺷﻴﻮه 1980 و ﺗﻮأم ﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ اﻳﻦ رﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ از   ﻫﺎی ﻧﻘﺪ ادﺑﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﺴﺎ ِ وﻳﮋه ﺳﺎ ﺧﺘﺎرﮔﺮاﻳﻲ و رواﻧﻜﺎویﻻﻛﺎﻧﻲ .( از راه اﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ، ﭼﻨﺎن ﺗﻨﻮﻋﻲ در ﻧﻘﺪ ﻣﻌﻄﻮف ﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت زﻧﺎن ﺑﻪ وﺟﻮد آﻣﺪه اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻋﺘﻘﺎد اﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ِﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ  ِ ﭘﺮدازان  «ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ»  ﻳﮕﺎﻧﺔ ﻓﻤﻴﻨﻴﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻓﻤﻴﻨﻴﺴﺖ، دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎی رﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ رﻫﻴﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎی ﻓﻤﻴﻨﻴﺴﺘﻲ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﺮد . ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ، ﭘﺲ از ﻣﺮوری ﺑﺮ ﺎﻟﻮده در ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ  ﻫﺎی ﻧﻘﺪ  «ﻣﺪل»  ﺑﺮآﻣﺪه از ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت زﻧﺎن، داﺳﺘﺎن ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ِﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺔ ﺳﻴﻤﻴﻦ داﻧﺸﻮر ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮد . ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﺧﺎص ﺑﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺎرﻛﺴﻴﺴﻢ و ﭘﺴﺎﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎرﮔﺮاﻳﻲ در ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ درﺑﺎرة اﻳﻤﺎژﻫﺎی زﻧﺎن در آﺛﺎر ادﺑﻲ ﻣﻲ  ﭘﺮدازﻳﻢ و در ﭘﺮﺗﻮ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ  ﻫﺎ، ﻗﺮاﺋﺘﻬﺎی ﻣﻲ دﻳﮕﺮی از ﻫﻤﻴﻦ داﺳﺘﺎن از ﺳﻴﻤﻴﻦ داﻧﺸﻮر اراﺋﻪ  ﮔﺮدد . ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻧﮕﺎرﻧﺪه در اﻳﻦ ﻗﺮاﺋﺘﻬﺎ، ﻫﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺗﺼﺎوﻳﺮی اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ داﻧﺸﻮر از ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻣﺮدﺳﺎﻻراﻧﻪ و ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه زﻧﺎن در اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻲ ﻫ ﻛﻨﺪ و اﻳﻨ ﻢ  ﻜﻪ داﺳﺘﺎن او ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ را ﻓﻌﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﻣﻮرد ﭼﺎﻟﺶ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Cultural Reading of Simin Daneshvar’s Story “The Model” from Three Perspectives in Women’s Studies

نویسنده [English]

  • Hossein Payandeh

Professor of Critical Theory

چکیده [English]



Feminist Criticism in Cultural Studies is particularly distinguished from other approaches in modern literary criticism in that its emergence and expansion is the consequence of a social movement. Women’s self-consciousness of the inequality of their civil rights compared with men not only led to the formation of social movements aimed at achieving goals such as universal suffrage and equal pay for equal work, but it also inspired a reconsideration of culture and how cultural mechanisms have helped to place women in their inferior position in society. Consequently, literature as an undeniable constituent of culture has been one of the main foci of feminists’ attention. The development of women’s studies in the 1970s and 1980s was combined with its merging with some of the other critical approaches (in particular poststructuralism and Lacanian psychoanalysis). This combination led to such a diversity in the cultural studies of women’s issues that in the opinion of most feminist theorists we can no longer talk of a single feminist approach, but a variety of these approaches. The present essay starts with a review of the theoretical foundations of feminist criticism and then examines a short story entitled “The Model” by the contemporary female Iranian writer Simin Daneshvar. The next section of the essay deals with the effect of Marxism and poststructuralism in the cultural study of the images of women in literary texts and offers further readings of Daneshvar’s story in the
Persistence of traditional cultural values, and the incompatibility of laws and regulations regarding inheritance have imposed an unequal living condition on the elderly women and have deprived them of their most basic needs and necessities such as decent retirement income and shelter.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Population aging
  • family household
  • living arrangement
  • Social Support