فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جمعیت شناسی

2 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺘﻲ و اﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ ﺳـﺎﻟﻬﺎی اﺧﻴـﺮ ﻋﺮﺻـﻪ ﻫـﺎی ﻣﻬﻤـﻲ از زﻧـﺪﮔﻲ اﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ و ﺧﺎﻧﻮادﮔﻲ ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪان را ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻗﺮار داده و در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺎن  ﭘﺲ  اﻓﺘﺎدﮔﻲ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ زﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺮوز ﻣﺸﻜﻼت ﻣﺘﻌﺪدی را ﺑﺮای آﻧﺎن ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻛﺮده اﺳﺖ  .   اﺣﺘﻤﺎل ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ و زودﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺗﺮ ﻣﺮگ ﺷـﻮﻫﺮ ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر اﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎی ازدواج و ﻣﺮگ وﻣﻴﺮ و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﻴﻮﮔﻲ زﻧﺎن ﺳـﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﻤـﻮل ﺗـﺮ اﺳﺖ .  در ﺧﺎﻧﻮادة ﮔﺴﺘﺮده ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﺎدام ً اﻏﻠﺐ زﻧﺎن ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﻴﻮه ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ   اﻟﻌﻤﺮ داﺷﺘﻨﺪ و ﺑﻴـﻮﮔﻲ زودﻫﻨﮕﺎم آﻧﺎن ﺑﻪ ﻧﺪرت ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺑـﺮوز ﻣﺤﺮوﻣﻴﺘﻬـﺎ و آﺳـﻴﺒﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑـﺮای اﻳـﻦ ﮔـﺮوه ﻣـﻲ  ﺷـﺪ، در  ﺣﺎﻟﻲ  ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل اﺛﺮ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﻧﻮﺳﺎزی و ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺷﺪن در ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ اﻣﺮوزی اﻳﻦ اﻣﺮ ﻣﺤـﺪود و ﻳﺎ دﺷﻮار ﺷـﺪه اﺳـﺖ  اﻳـﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨـﺪ از ﺳـﻮی دﻳﮕـﺮ دﺳﺘﺮﺳـﻲ و ﻫﻤﺮاﻫـﻲ ﻓﺮزﻧـﺪان را ﻧﻴـﺰ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻟﺸﻌﺎع ﻫﻨﺠﺎرﻫﺎی ﺣﻔﻆ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻗﺮار داده و ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺛﺒﺎت ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ و زﻧـﺎن از ﮔـﺬر اﻳـﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮات ً ﺣﻘﻮق ﻣﺪﻧﻲ، ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ ﺗـﺎ واﻟـﺪﻳﻦ ﺳـﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪ ﺧـﺼﻮﺻﺎ آﺳﻴﺐ  ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺗﺮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ . اﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ دارد ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮح ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﺑﭙﺮدازد .داده ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑـﺮای اﻧﺠﺎم اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻗﺮار    ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ، ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻳـﻚ ﺗﺤﻘﻴـﻖ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳـﺸﻲ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﻋﻨـﻮان ﺷﺒﻜﻪﻫﺎی ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﺎت زﻧﺪﮔﻲ و ﺳﻼﻣﺖ ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪان در ﺷـﻬﺮ ﺗﻬـﺮان اﺳـﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ روی ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ   527 ای ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ 60 ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪ ﺳﺎل ﺑﻪ ﺑـﺎﻻ در ﺷـﻬﺮ ﺗﻬـﺮان اﻧﺠـﺎم ﺷـﺪه اﺳﺖ .ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻫﺎی اﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻃـﻮر ﺧﻼﺻـﻪ ﻧـﺸﺎن ﻣـﻲ دﻫـﺪ ﻛـﻪ ﺳـﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪ ی و ﻣـﺴﺎﻳﻞ و ﻣﺸﻜﻼت ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از آن در ﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻬﺮان زﻧﺎﻧﻪ اﺳﺖ زﻧﺎن ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﻣﺮدان ﺗﻨﻬﺎ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﻲ  ﻛﻨﻨـﺪ، از ﻧﻈﺮ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی ﻧﺎﺗﻮان ﺗﺮ از ﻣﺮدان ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺑﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﺪم ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺷـﺮاﻳﻂ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ و ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ در ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮاﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﺎﻧﻮادﮔﻲ ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪان را ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮ داده اﺳﺖ، ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮی ﺑﺮ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ زﻧﺎن ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻨﺪ ﺣﺎﻛﻢ ﺷﺪه، به  ﺷﻜﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ آﻧـﺎن را ﺣﺘـﻲ  در ﺑﺮآورده ﻛﺮدن ﻧﻴﺎزﻫﺎی اوﻟﻴﺔ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﺜﻼ مسکن و ﺳﺮﭘﻨﺎه ﻧﺎﺗﻮان ﻛﺮده اﺳﺖ ً

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Gender Inequalities in Family Life of the Elderly in Tehran (Statement of a Cultural Problem)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Ghazi Tabatabaei 1
  • Mohamad Mirzaei 2
  • Majid Kosheshi 3

1 Tehran University

2 Tehran University

3 Tehran University

چکیده [English]

Social and demographic changes during recent years have had an important effect on various aspects of social and family lives of the elderly in Iran. Cultural backwardness (cultural lag) is among the issues that have been instrumental in creating a number of problems for these people. Higher probability of death for husband and more common widowhood of wife is the expected outcome of the dominant marriage and mortality patterns in Iran. Prior to these changes the widowed elderly women used to live in extended families and enjoyed the lifelong protection of the clan and were rarely subjected to the kinds of vulnerabilities and deprivations that they are exposed to these days. Modernization and globalization processes in today’s society have brought about the age of the nuclear family structure, high mobility and pursue of individual goals and self interests. These changes in conjunction with existing, and relatively stable, traditional cultural values and civil and legal limitations have made such protections almost impossible and have left elderly women in an especially vulnerable position. This article is an attempt to address this issue. Using data on living arrangements and health statuses of a representative sample of 527 elderly men and women from Tehran, the findings clearly show that aging and the relevant living arrangement problems and difficulties stemming from it are mainly a female problem in Tehran. Elderly women live alone more than elderly men, are less capable economically, and are less equipped in dealing with the problems that these changes have brought about. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City population
  • Partisanship
  • population