فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﭘﮋوﻫﺸﻲ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺳﻌﻲ ﻛﺮده  اﻳﻢ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪﻫﺎی ﻓﺮدی و اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ اﺷﺘﻐﺎل در زﻧﺎن، ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ و ﺷﻐﻠﻲ زﻧﺎن را ﺑـﺮ ﺳـﺒﻚ زﻧـﺪﮔﻲ آﻧـﺎن ﻣـﻮرد    ﺑﺮرﺳـﻲ و ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻦ ﻗﺮار دﻫﻴﻢ  . ﭼﺎرﭼﻮب ﻧﻈﺮی ﻣﺎ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﻮردﻳـﻮ و روش ﺗﺤﻘﻴـﻖ ﻣـﺎ ﭘﻴﻤـﺎﻳﺶ ﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ ای ﺑﻮده اﺳﺖ  ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ واﺑﺴﺘﻪ اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ، ﺳﺒﻚ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﺧـﻮد از ﭼﻬـﺎر ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻧﻮع رواﺑﻂ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، ﻣﻴﺰان اوﻗﺎت ﻓﺮاﻏﺖ، ﻧﻮع ﺳﻠﻴﻘﻪ و ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺪن ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ  ﭘﺬﻳﺮد و ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ا ﺻﻠﻲ در اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ، ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ از دو ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﺖ ﺷـﻐﻠﻲ و وﺿﻌﻴﺖ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی اﻳﺠﺎد ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ .  ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣـﻲ   دﻫـﺪ ﻛـﻪ در ﻣﺠﻤـﻮع ﻫﺮﭼـﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴـﺖ ﺷـﻐﻠﻲ و ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی زﻧﺎن ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ارﺗﻘﺎ ﭘﻴـﺪا ﻣـﻲ    ﻛﻨـﺪ، رواﺑـﻂ اﺟﺘﻤـﺎﻋﻲ آﻧﻬـﺎ ﻛـﺎﻫﺶ ﻣـﻲ  ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺰان اوﻗﺎت ﻓﺮ رده اﻏﺖ زﻧﺎن  رده ﻫﺎی ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ، ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺎﻏﻼن   ﻫﺎی ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ و ﺑﺎﻻی ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻮده اﺳﺖ؛ اﻣﺎ زﻧﺎن رده  ﻫﺎی ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺷـﻐﻠﻲ ﺑـﺎ وﺟـﻮد ﻣﺤـﺪودﺗﺮ ﺑـﻮدن ﻓﺮاﻏﺘﺸﺎن در اوﻗﺎت ﻓﺮاﻏﺖ ﺧﻮد وﻗﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮی ﺑـﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬـﺎی ورزﺷـﻲ و ﻣـﺼﺮف ﻛﺎﻻﻫـﺎی ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ اﺧﺘﺼﺎص ﻣﻲ  دﻫﻨﺪ در اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ    ﺷﻐﻠﻲ زﻧﺎن و ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﻫـﺎی ﺟﺴﻤﺎﻧﻲ و ﻣﻴﺰان ﻧﻈﺎرت و ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺑﺮ ﺑﺪن راﺑﻄﻪ ای ﻣـﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﻧـﺸﺪ.  در ﻧﻬﺎﻳـﺖ اﻳـﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌـﻪﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ، در زﻧﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ دارای ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻮده   اﻧﺪ، ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ زﻧﺎن رده    ﻫﺎی ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ، ﺳﺒﻚ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ از ﻣﺼﺮف  ﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ وﻳﮋه ﻣﺼﺮف ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮی و ﺗﺠﻤﻠﻲ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﮔ ﺮﻓﺘﻪ و ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ  ﻫﺎی ﻓﺎﻳﺪه   ای و ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدی ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲ  ﺷﻮد .   ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣـﺎﻛﻲ از آن اﺳـﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺒﻚ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ و اﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎی ﻣﺼﺮف و در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﺰﻫﺎی ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻲ زﻧﺎن را ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮان ﺻـﺮﻓﺎ روی ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕـﻲ از ﺟﻤﻠـﻪ ﺟﻨـﺴﻴﺖ،  ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻼت و ارزﺷﻬﺎ و ﻧﮕﺮﺷﻬﺎ را در ﺷﻜﻞ  ﮔﻴﺮی ﻫﻮﻳﺖ و ﺳﺒﻚ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ زﻧـﺎن ﻣـﻮرد ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌـﻪ ﻗﺮار داد .

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study on the Effects of Occupational Status on Their Lifestyle

نویسنده [English]

  • Maryam Rafaatjah

Tehran University

چکیده [English]

In this research we have tried to study the effects of the occupational status of women on their lifestyle. Our theoretical framework is based on Pierre Beurdeau's theory and the research has been done with survey method. The dependent variable of this research is life-style and its components are social relations, leisure time, taste, and body management .The independent variable of our research is occupational position and its components are occupational prestige and economical position. The findings show that with increases in the women's occupational position, their social relations decreased. Besides the women who worked in the middle occupational positions had more leisure time than those who worked in high and low level occupations. But women who had higher occupational positions, spent more times for sports activities and consumeed more cultural commodities than other women. Also in this research we have not seen any relationship between occupational status and body control. Finally the findings show that the women with high occupational positions kept distance from consumptionism and paid more attention to the functions and benefits of goods. Moreover in this study we found that we cannot explain lifestyle, consumption patterns and women's identity  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • lifestyle
  • Job Position
  • Leisure
  • Body Management
  • Taste
  • Hour
  • Economic Capital
  • Consumption of Cultural Goods