فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسنده

دانشگاه صدا و سیما

چکیده

ﺑﻲ ﺗﺮدﻳﺪ ﻛﻠﻴﻔﻮرد ﮔﻴﺮﺗﺰ از ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ و اﺛﺮﮔﺬارﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺮدم ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎن ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﻗﺮارﻛﺮدن ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ
ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ و ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻦ ﻗﺪﻣﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه در ارﺗﻘﺎی ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه ﻣﺮدم ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ در ﻣﻴﺎن داﻧﺸﻬﺎی اﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ و
اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ .ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه او را در ﻣﺮدم ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ و ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ و دﻳﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه
ﻣﺎﻛﺲ وﺑﺮ در ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻛﺮد .او از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺎﻟﻜﻮت ﭘﺎرﺳﻨﺰ ﺑﺎ آرای ﻣﺎﻛﺲ وﺑﺮ آﺷﻨﺎ ﺷﺪ و
ﺗﻼش ﻛﺮد ﺗﻔﻬﻴﻢ و ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ را در ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ و ﭘﺪﻳﺪه ﻫﺎی ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺑﻨﺪد .ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ
 داﻧﺴﺖ .او ﺑﺎ «ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ» و «ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ»ﻣﻮارﻳﺚ ﻧﻈﺮی و ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺗﺰ را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻼﺷﻬﺎی او در ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ راﺑﻄﻪ
 از ﭘﻴﺶ،ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﺷﺪن اﺳﺘﻘﻼل و اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﺮای ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻗﺮاوﻻن روﻳﻜﺮدی اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﻞ آن را
"فرهنگ نمادگرا" می  ﺧﻮاﻧﺪ .اﺑﺰار ﺗﺌﻮرﻳﻚ ﻛﺎرآﻣﺪ ﮔﻴﺮﺗﺰ در اﺗﺨﺎذ و ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ اﻳﻦ روﻳﻜﺮد ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮی
و ﻣﻌﻨﺎﮔﺮا، آﺋﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ .ﺑﺎ وﺟﻮد اﻳﻦ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ رﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ آرای ﮔﻴﺮﺗﺰ ﺑﺮای داﻧﺶ ﭘﮋوﻫﺎن اﻳﺮاﻧﻲ
ﭼﻨﺪان ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ .ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺗﻼش ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ از آرای ﮔﻴﺮﺗﺰ اراﺋﻪ ﻛﻨﺪ و ﻧﺸﺎن دﻫﺪ
ﻛﻪ او را ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮﮔﺮا داﻧﺴﺖ .اﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ و ﻣﺮوری ﺑﺮ روﻳﻜﺮد ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮی
ﮔﻴﺮﺗﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ و دﻳﻦ و ﻣﺮوری ﺑﺮ ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻲ او در ﺟﺰاﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ دﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ او
ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ از آﺋﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺮای ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Clifford Geertz and his Look at Religion and Culture

نویسنده [English]

  • abdollah Givian

Seda v Sima University

چکیده [English]

Unquestionably, Clifford Geertz was one of the most important and influential contemporary Anthropologists. Trying to overcome the conflict between interpretation and explanation, he improved the intellectual position of anthropology amongst the humanities and social sciences. With this in mind, his position among Anthropologists can be compared with Max Weber as a Sociologist. Knowing Weber through the American Sociologist Parsons, he tried to apply an interpretative reading of culture and cultural phenomena. His attempts to clarify the relationship between «Society» and «Culture», is one of his valuable legacies. Pointing to culture as an independent entity and being concerned about its priority over society, he improved on an approach called Culturalist – Symbolist by some scholars. An efficient tool at his hand was the concept of ritual. Despite his popularity in other countries, it seems that Iranian students are not sufficiently informed about him. This article is a humble attempt to introduce some of his views and to show in which sense he should be seen as a promoter of an interpretative approach. In doing so, this article reviews his main ideas about culture and religion and through one of his popular experimental works, Cockfight, tries to show how he used a ritual as a text to interpret a culture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : religion
  • Culture
  • Anthropology
  • Clifford Geertz