فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه تهران

2 اﺳﺘﺎدﻳﺎر داﻧﺸﻜﺪه ﻋﻠﻮم اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺗﻬﺮان

3 کارشناس ارشد توسعه روستایی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻮری اﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ راﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ آﺛـﺎر ﺳـﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ اﻳـﺮان از   اﺳﺖ .در اﻳﻦ   رﻫﮕﺬر ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ اﻳـﻦ راﺑﻄـﻪ و ﻧﻴـﺰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴـﺖ  1357 زﻣﺎن ﺷﻜﻞ  ﮔﻴﺮی اﻳﻦ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺗﺎ سال   ﺑﺎزﺗﺎب واﻗﻌﻴﺎت ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲاﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺑﺎزﺗﺎب اﺳﺘﻮار اﺳـﺖ ِ .ﻣﻄﻤﺢ ﻧﻈﺮ است ﭼﺎرﭼﻮب ﻧﻈﺮی .ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ اﻳﻦ روﻳﻜﺮد، ﻫﻨﺮ آﻳﻨﻪ و اﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﻲ از ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ واﺳﻄﻪ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﺸﺮو ط  ﺷﺪه و ﺗﻌﻴﻦ ﻣـﻲ  ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ .در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ   از روش اﺳﻨﺎدی ﺑﺮای ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات ﻋﻤﺪه ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ روﺳﺘﺎﻳ ﻲ و ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻔﻜﻴـﻚ ﺗـﺎریخی    ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎی ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺤ ﺚ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﺮده  اﻳﻢ .ﺑﺮای درک ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر و ﻛﺎرﻛﺮد آﺛﺎر ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ در روﻧﺪ اﻳـﻦ ﭘـﮋوﻫﺶ  درﺻـﺪ از ﻓﻴﻠﻤﻬـﺎی9 روش ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﺘﻮ  ای ﻛﻴﻔ ﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﺪه   اﺳﺖ .ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ  ﻫﺎ ﻧﺸـﺎن ﻣﻲ  دﻫـﺪ ﻛـﻪ تنها  ، ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎی روﺳﺘ ﺎﻳﻲ ذﻳﻞ ﻛﺎرﻛﺮد ﻧﺸﺎن دادن واﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه  اﻧﺪ .ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﻛﻪ میان    ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ  ﻫﺎی ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ و ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﺎرﻛﺮدﻫﺎی ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎ در ﻃـﻮل دوره ﻣـﻮرد ﺑﺤـﺚ راﺑﻄـﻪ ﻣﻌﻨـﺎداری وﺟـﻮد دارد .ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻣﺸـﺘﺮک ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮات 1341 اﺟﺮای ﻣﻬ ﻢ  ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ دوﻟﺖ در روﺳﺘﺎﻫﺎ)اﺻﻼﺣﺎت ارﺿ ﻲ (در ﺳﺎل   اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ و ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻀﺎﻣﻴﻦ و ﻛﺎرﻛﺮدﻫﺎی ﺳـﻴﻨﻤﺎی روﺳـﺘﺎﻳﻲ در ﻃـﻮل دوره ﻣـﻮرد ﺑﺤـﺚ اﺳﺖ.واﻗﻌﻴﺖ  ﮔﺮﻳﺰی، ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ ﺑﺮای ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ و اﻗﻨﺎع ﻣﺮدم ﺑﺮای ﭘـﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻓﺮﻫﻨـﮓ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ و ﻧﮕﺮﺷـﻬﺎی ﻧـﻮ، از  ﻣﻬﻢ  ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎرﻛﺮدﻫﺎی ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎی روﺳﺘﺎ   ﻳﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻧﻘﻼب اﺳﺖ .ﻧﻘﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎت ارﺑﺎب و رﻋﻴﺖ در ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎی ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺻﻼﺣﺎت ارﺿﻲ، روﺷﻦ  ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮد ﻫﻤﺒﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ، اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ روﺳـﺘﺎ ﻳﻲ  ﻣﺤﺘﻮای ﻓﻴﻠﻤﻬﺎی ﺳﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎر ﻣﻲ رود

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Rural Society in the Mirror of Iranian Cinematography A consideration of Films between 1932-1978

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Azkia 1
  • Hossein Mirzaei 2
  • Ehssan javanmard 3

1 Tehran university

2 Tehran university

3 M.A student of Tehran University

چکیده [English]

The basic subject of this paper is considering of the relation between social changes of rural society and Iranian Cinematography works from novel up to formation of this art up to 1978. Also it is considered to have a consideration of this relation and quality of rural society realities. Theoretical framework of this essay is based upon the reflexive theory . According to this approach, art including a wide scope of researches based upon this common idea that the art is the mirror of society or the art may be conditional and specified due to the art. Documentary method has been used in this essay for specifying the major changes of rural society and historical separation of considered years as well. For better understanding of the structure and application of cinematography works, we used the qualitative content analysis method. According to the findings of this essay, only %9 of rural cinematography films made for showing the reality. Also we could found out that there is a meaningful relation between governmental programs and any change of cinema applications through the mentioned period. Performing the most important governmental program in villages (Land reforms) in 1962 is a common reference point of social changes in rural society and any changes of concepts and applications of rural cinematography through the mentioned period. The most important outputs of rural cinematography before revolution is hiding of reality, advertising for government and enrichment of people for accepting the new culture and new attitudes. Any criticism of relations between master and man in cinema after (Land reforms) are the clearest results of correlation of social/ economic changes of rural society with the content of cinematography film

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cinema
  • Village
  • Social changes
  • reflexive theory
  • Hiding of reality