نویسنده

دانشجوی دکتر ی تربیت مدرس

چکیده

ﺳﺎزه ﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻲ اﻧﺘﻘﺎدی ﺑﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺎﻟﺶ ﻛﺸﻴﺪن دﻳﺪﮔﺎه ذات ﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺑﺮ آن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ،ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻲ ﻓﺮاﺗﺮ از وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎی ذات «زﻧﺎﻧﮕﻲ» ای اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ اﺳﺖ .از اﻳﻦ دﻳﺪﮔﺎه  ﮔﺮاﻳﺎﻧﻪ و ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت اﺳﺖ .اﻳﻦ «ﻣﺎدﻳﻨﮕﻲ»و  «زﻧﻲ»از   ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻮع ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎی ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻲ در ﻣﻴﺎن زﻧﺎن )دراﻳﻨﺠﺎ دﺧﺘﺮان (اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت اﻳﻦ ﺗﻨﻮع در ﻧﮕﺮش ﺑﻪ ارزﺷﻬﺎ و ﻛﻠﻴﺸﻪ ﻫﺎ، اﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺖ و ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد آن ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻲ ﻛﻠﻴﺪی در  «زﻧﺎﻧﮕﻴﻬﺎ» در ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت زﻧﺎن و دﺧﺘﺮان را ﻳﺎدآوری ﻛﺮده و ﺑﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺖ و ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت زﻧﺎن ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ .در اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺠﺎم ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺶ و اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ای ﻣﻌﺮف داﻧﺶ آﻣﻮزان دﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻬﺮان، ﻫﻮﻳﺖ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻲ دﺧﺘﺮان و ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﮕﺮش
آﻧﺎن ﺑﻪ ارزﺷﻬﺎی زﻧﺎﻧﻪ و راﺑﻄﻪ آن ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎه اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ـ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی را ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻗﺮار داده اﻳﻢ .ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺿﻤﻦ اذﻋﺎن ﺑﻪ وﺟﻮد ﺗﻨﻮﻋﻲ از ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎی زﻧﺎﻧﻪ در ﻣﻴﺎن دﺧﺘﺮﻫﺎی داﻧﺶ آﻣﻮز ﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﻬﺮان، ﺑﺮﺧﻲ اﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎت را در زﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﻧﮕﺮش ﺑﻪ ارزﺷﻬﺎی زﻧﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ .ﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺎس دﺧﺘﺮان ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎه اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲـ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﭘﺎی ﺑﻨﺪی ﻛﻤﺘﺮی ﺑﻪ ارزﺷﻬﺎی زﻧﺎﻧﻪ دارﻧﺪ، در ﺣﺎﻟﻲ  ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎی ﺑﻨﺪی دﺧﺘﺮان ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎه اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲـ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ ارزﺷﻬﺎی زﻧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ.ﻳﺎﻓﺘﺔ دﻳﮕﺮ اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ ﺣﺎﻛﻲ از آن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ راﺑﻄﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﺎداری ﺑﻴﻦ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎه اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲـ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی و ﻫﻮﻳﺖ ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻲ دﺧﺘﺮان وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد و در ﻫﺮ دو ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎه اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ـ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ و ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺗﺮ ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ از ﻫﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎی ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻲ ﭼﻬﺎرﮔﺎﻧﻪ )زﻧﺎﻧﻪ، ﻣﺮداﻧﻪ، دوﺟﻨﺴﻴﺘﻲ و ﻧﺎﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ )وﺟﻮد دارد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Young Girls and Feminine Values (Research on High School Students in Tehran)

نویسنده [English]

  • masomeh gharakhani

Phd Student tarbiaat moderes university

چکیده [English]

Constructionists as a critical school argue gender identity is a social construct. Accoridng to this perspective femininity is something beyond the mere essential characteristics of womanhood and females. This study focuses on the variety of gender identities among female high school student’s girls and insists that the plurality in values reveals the importance of gender and its use in the study of women and girls arguing that femininity is a key concept in such studies.  Using survey methodology with a sample of high school female students in Tehran the gender identity of girls and their attitudes towards feminine values in relation to their socio-economic status were studied. The findings reveal the diversity of feminine identities among the sample and also reveal some discrepancies in the perception of feminine values. According to the results girls with a higher socioeconomic status show a lower degree of commitment to feminine values, while girls from lower statuses show a higher commitment to them.  Although other findings reveal no meaningful relationship between socio-economic status and gender identity and there are similar distribution of the following gender identity, feminine, masculine, bi-gender and androgynous amongst both higher and lower socio-economic groups.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gender
  • sex
  • Gender Identity
  • Femininity
  • feminine values