فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه الزهرا

2 کارشناس ارشد جامعه شناسی دانشگاه الزهرا

چکیده

در ادﺑﻴﺎت ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ  ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﻓﺮدﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻲ ﻣﺪرن در ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﻤﻊ  ﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﻗـﺮا    ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮد .ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸﻲ در ﺧﺼﻮص ﺧﻮﻳﺶ و   ﻋﺮﺻﻪ  ﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ زﻧﺪﮔﻲ از وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎی ﺑﺎرز ﻓـﺮد  ﮔﺮاﻳـﻲ ﺑـه   ﺷﻤﺎر  ﻣﻲ  آﻳﺪ .در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ و در ﻓﻘﺪان ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ داﺋﻤﻲ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ،   ﮔﺮاﻳﺸﻬﺎ و ﺟﻬﺖ  ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻬﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ  از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ  ﮔﺮاﻳﺸﻬﺎی دﻳﻨﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺼﻠﺖ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﺧﻮد را از دﺳﺖ داده و ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸﻴﻬﺎی ﻣﻜـﺮر     ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲ ً ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ .اﻳﻦ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ در ﺑﻴﻦ اﻗﺸﺎری ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ در ﻣﻌﺮض آﮔﺎﻫﻴﻬﺎی ﻣﺪرن ﻗﺮار  دارﻧـﺪ  رواج ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮی ﭘﻴﺪا ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ. 
ﺑﺎ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش اوﻟﻴﻪ اﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺶ ﻓـﺮض ﻣﻘﺎﻟـﻪ ﺣﺎﺿـﺮ در ﺻـﺪد ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌـﻪ ﭼﮕـﻮﻧﮕﻲ وﺿـﻌﻴﺖ ارزﺷـﻬﺎی   ﻓﺮدﮔﺮاﻳﺎﻧﻪ ـ ﺟﻤﻊ  ﮔﺮاﻳﺎﻧﻪ در ﺑﻴﻦ داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن و راﺑﻄﻪ آن ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮاﻳﺸﻬﺎی دﻳﻨﻲ و اﺷﻜﺎل ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸﺎﻧﻪ آن اﺳﺖ.   ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺳﻨﺠﺔ ِ دﻳﻨﺪاری اﺳﺘﺎرک و ﮔﻼرک و ﺷﺎ ﺧﺺ ﻣﺤﻘﻖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺔ ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸـﻲ  دﻳﻨﻲ و ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﺟﻤﻊ  ﮔﺮاﻳﻲـ ﻓﺮدﮔﺮاﻳـﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻧـﺪﻳﺲ ﻣﺸـﺨﺺ ﺷـﺪ ﻛـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻲ  رﻏـﻢ ﺗﺴـﻠﻂ ﺧﺼـﻠﺘﻬﺎی   ﺟﻤﻊ  ﮔﺮاﻳﺎﻧﻪ،  ﮔﺮاﻳﺸﻬﺎی ﻓﺮدﮔﺮاﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ   ﻫﻤﺎن ﺷﺪت در ﺑﻴﻦ اﻳﻦ ﻗﺸﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد اﺳﺖ  .اﻳﻦ ﻫـﻢ  زﻳﺴـﺘﻲ  از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ دو روش ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺸ    ﻲ و ﺳﺎزه    ای ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﺪ   .ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ در ﺑﻴﻦ اﻳﻦ ﮔﺮوه اﺑﻌﺎد اﻋﺘﻘـﺎدی و ﺗﺠﺮﺑـﻲ  دﻳﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ اﺑﻌﺎد دﻳﮕﺮان از ﻣﻴﺰان ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮی ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار اﺳﺖ.  راﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﺧﺼﻬﺎ ﻧﺸﺎن داد ﻛﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ   ﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﻪ اﺑﻌﺎد دﻳﻨﺪاری ارﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ و ﻣﻌﻨﺎدار دارد    اﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ از ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸﻲ در دﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ .در ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﺮدﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻲ دﻳﻨﺪاری و ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﺑﺎزاﻧﺪﻳﺸﻲ در دﻳﻦ رواﺑﻂ ﻗﻮی را نشان می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Individualism, Communalism and Religiosity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansooreh azam Azadeh 1
  • atefeh tavakoli 2

1 Alzahra university

2 M.A alzahra university

چکیده [English]

Individualism, as a modern term, stands contrary to the communalism of traditional society in sociological literature. Re-interpretation of the self and various spheres of life constitute the basic characteristics of individualism. Within such circumstances and with the absence of social approval religious orientation may become questioned and evaluated. This situation often occurs amongst seculars of society most exposed to modern epistemology. Accepting this presupposition, we examine the existence of individualistic and communistic values among university students and the relationship between religious tendencies and liberal interpretations. In doing so we have used Stock and Clark’s measurement of religiosity combined with indexes on rethinking religiosity and individualist/ communalist values constructed by the researcher. This study showed that despite the dominance of communal characteristics individualistic tendencies exist almost with the same intensity. The co-existence of these two was shown using both survey and construction methods. The study also showed that among the students’ belief and experimental dimensions of religion are more acceptable than other dimensions. The study of the inter-relations between the indexes reveals that communalism has a direct and meaningful inter-relationship with all dimensions of religiosity but acts independently from re-thinking religion.  Contrary to this, individualism shows strong relationships with experimental as well as rethinking dimensions of religion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • communalism
  • individualism
  • religiosity
  • religious tendencies
  • religious rethinking