فصلنامه مطالعات فرهنگی و ارتباطات

نویسنده

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

ﻧﻈﺎم ارزﺷﻲ و ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺑﺎورﻫﺎ و ﺷﻴﻮه زﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﺮدم راﺑﻄﻪ ای ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﮔﺬاری ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ و ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ راﺟﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮔﻴﺮی و ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ دارد .ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﮔﺬاری  ﺑﺮای  ﻫﺮ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ اﻧﻌﻜﺎس ارزش ﻫﺎی ﮔﺰﻳﻨﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮای آن اﺳﺖ و درک ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮع از ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﮔﺬاری ﺑﺪون ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ و ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺗﺤﻮل ارزﺷﻲ آن  ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ .ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎت دو ﺳﻮﻳﻪ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ و ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﮕﺬاری و ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺧﺼﻮص ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﻲ آﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﻄﻮف ﺑﻪ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻼت و ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ درﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ و ﺗﺤﻮل ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ اﻳﺮان وﺟﻮد دارد .ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﺘﻮای ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻫﺎ و ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ و ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪﻫﺎی ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ از آﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ دوﻟﺖ در اﻳﺮان اﺟﺮای ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻫﺎی ﻛﻼن ﻫﻤﻮاره ﺑﺎ ﭼﺎﻟﺶ ﺟﺪی ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ و ارزﺷﻲ ﻣﻮاﺟﻪ ﺑﻮده و ﻫﺴﺖ .ﻋﺪم ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﮔﺬاری ﻫﺎ وﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰی ﺳﺎل 60 ﻫﺎ در (ﺣﺎﻛﻲ از وﺟﻮد ﻣﻮاﻧﻊ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ، ارزﺷﻲ و ﻧﻬﺎدی از ﻳﻚ ﺳﻮ 1327-1386)اﺧﻴﺮ و ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺷﻴﻮه ﻫﺎی ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪی و ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از درآﻣﺪﻫﺎی ﻧﻔﺘﻲ )راﻧﺖ (از ﺳﻮی دﻳﮕﺮ اﺳﺖ .آزادﺳﺎزی اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی و ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻲ ﺳﺎزی ﻣﺤﻮر ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻫﺎی اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی دودﻫﺔ اﺧﻴﺮ در اﻳﺮان ﺑﻮده 44 اﺳﺖ و اﺑﻼغ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻫﺎی ﻛﻠﻲ اﺻﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺴﺘﺮش ﻣﺸﺎرﻛﺖ و ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻴﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻲ، رﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﭘﺬﻳﺮی و ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻓﻀﺎی ﻛﺴﺐ و ﻛﺎر ﺑﺮای ﻣﺮدم، ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﮕﺬاری ﺑﺮای ﺗﺤﻮل را وارد ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪی ﻛﺮده اﺳﺖ .اﺟﺮای ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻫﺎی ﻣﺬﻛﻮر ﻧﻴﺎزﻣﻨﺪ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪﻫﺎی اﻗﺘﺼﺎدی و اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ وﺳﻴﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ آورد ﺿﺮورت ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ و ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﮔﺬاری و ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ را ﺑﻴﺶ از ﭘﻴﺶ اﻳﺠﺎب ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Culture and Policy-making in Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • gholamheidar baysalami

Tehran university

چکیده [English]

Value system, beliefs and people's life style have a mutual relation with public policy-making and decision-making about the resource allocation. In every society, policy-making is the reflection of selected values in that society. Therefore, understanding any policymaking is not possible unless with regards to the cultural and value evolution in that society. Studying mutual relation between culture and policy-making and the resulted interaction is affected by the main issues and problems existing in the process of development and evolution of Iran society. Analyzing policies, plans and their consequences show that the State has always been confronted with significant value and cultural challenges for implementing macro policies. The unsuccess of policy-making and planning in the last 6 decades (1937-2007) represent the existence of cultural, value and institutional limitations, in the one hand, and the impact of production styles and social structure which have been resulted from oil incomes, on the other hand. Economic liberalization and privatization have been the center of economic policies in the last two decades. Declaring macro policies of the article 44 of the constitutional law concerning expansion of participation, private ownership, and competitiveness, and development of job opportunities for people has led policy-making into a new phase. Implementation of the mentioned policies requires understanding of the background cultural of society. Because of the resulting economic and social consequences, the importance of understanding and analyzing of interaction between policy-making and culture becomes significant. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Culture
  • Policy-making
  • economic liberty
  • privatization